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Asia History

Gunpowder Empires

The centuries after 1500 in most of Asia were characterized by a fairly high degree of stability. The Middle East and India were ruled by the three "gunpowder empires", the Ottoman Empire, the Safa Empire in Persia, and the Great Mughal Empire in India. In China, the Ming Dynasty of 1644 was replaced by a nomadic dynasty, Manchu, who adopted the Chinese name of Qing and, despite its origins in the steppe country, relied heavily on the Chinese tradition. Japan and Korea also stabilized; the same was true of many internal struggles in SE Asia, where most of the states found on the modern world map - such as Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Cambodia and Vietnam - were finding their shape. The largest changes occurred in northern and central Asia. In the north, Russia extended during the 1600s. its dominion to the Pacific beyond the sparsely populated forest belt north of the steppe and attacked Central Asia from the west, while at the same time from the east China extended its dominion over Xinjiang, Mongolia and Tibet. In Manchuria the two kingdoms came into contact with each other, and with the Treaty of Nerchinsky 1689, the first treaty between China and a European state, the boundary relations between the two empires were settled.

Asia History

For reasons not yet known, the three "gunpowder" weakened in the early 1700s. This became particularly significant for India, where from the middle of the century the English East India Company managed to acquire tax collection rights over some of the richest areas. The dominion of India, which was transferred to the English crown in 1858, became the starting point for the building of an English empire in Asia, first emulated by the Dutch in Indonesia and in the last decades of France by "Indochina", the easternmost part of Southeast Asia..

Europe's mass production of industrial goods created from the early 1800s. need for new markets and access to more raw materials. Asia was involved in the fast-growing world trade, and Europe's technological superiority in the 1800s. made Asian conquests "cheap". The changes in the economic and political conditions that came to Asia across the sea prompted some of the most radical changes in the history of Asian cultures. Both the states that formally retained their independence, such as China, Iran, Japan and the Ottoman Empire, and the European colonial areas adopted and adapted to European technology, legal norms and cultural features, albeit always in a complicated interaction with older cultural layers.

After 1945

The era of direct European imperialism ended after World War II and was almost as short as the Mongol storm in the 1200s, but contemporary Asia is embedded in the modern world in a way that makes it more than ever impossible to speak of a particular Asian history. Postwar political history was long linked to the Cold War, but other lines of development are likely to be of greater importance in the longer term. Economic development plays a central role in political objectives everywhere. Early implemented in Japan, but also for example in Thailand, Taiwan, the Philippines, South Korea, China and India, modern industrial cultures have been developed, but rarely as copies of Western industrial societies. The involvement of the modern world market, the membership of the modern state society, the close contact with international ideas flows seem to be indispensable facts in contemporary Asia. It has led to profound changes, but everywhere in an original interplay with older historical layers and not as mechanical reproduction of Western models. Extremes such as religious fundamentalism and ultra-modern urban environments occur in the early 2000s. most conspicuous, but between the traditional and the modern, the slow development and adaptation of the millennium continues.

South Asia

Politically, South Asia has been marked by the protracted conflict between India and Pakistan over Kashmir. Pakistan also played a strategic key role in the US-led coalition against the Taliban regime in Afghanistan.

In the Middle East, terrorism and oil resources - along with the collapsed peace process between Israel and the Palestinians - have had a major impact on development. According to, a number of countries in the Arab world have had to carry out a severe balancing act between, on the one hand, the interests of American interests, including the 2001 US-led "war on terror" and, on the other, pressure from disgruntled populations.

Countries in Asia

Countries in Asia
  1. Afghanistan
  2. Armenia
  3. Azerbaijan
  4. Bahrain
  5. Bangladesh
  6. Bhutan
  7. Brunei
  8. Cambodia
  9. China
  10. Cyprus
  11. East Timor
  12. Georgia
  13. India
  14. Indonesia
  15. Iran
  16. Iraq
  17. Israel
  18. Japan
  19. Jordan
  20. Kazakhstan
  21. Kuwait
  22. Kyrgyzstan
  23. Laos
  24. Lebanon
  25. Malaysia
  26. Maldives
  27. Mongolia
  28. Nepal
  29. North Korea
  30. Myanmar
  31. Oman
  32. Pakistan
  33. Philippines
  34. Qatar
  35. Saudi Arabia
  36. Singapore
  37. South Korea
  38. Sri Lanka
  39. Syria
  40. Tajikistan
  41. Taiwan
  42. Thailand
  43. Turkey
  44. Turkmenistan
  45. United Arab Emirates
  46. Uzbekistan
  47. Vietnam
  48. Yemen

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