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Brazil

Yearbook 1999

Brazil. Two weeks after President Fernando Henrique Cardoso's installation for a second term in office. after the victory in the presidential election October 4, the currency was devalued in two rounds. In total, this meant a devaluation of 9%. The currency had been overvalued for a long time, but the triggering factor was a "rebellion" against the central government initiated by the State of Minas Gerais, former President Itamar Franco, on January 6 by suspending payments on the state's debt to the Union. The measure caused the São Paulo Stock Exchange to fall by 5%, causing a capital outflow of $ 5 billion during the first half of the month, but after the devaluation, the stock market stabilized and the capital outflow reversed. On the other hand, foreign debt automatically went up 18% to $ 272 billion, and after a decision in the Supreme Court in September - not to allow the government to levy social security contributions from retired civil servants - the government was forced to both cut government spending and raise taxes to cover the $ 1.2 billion fall in next year's budget that The HD decision means. A week later, therefore, President Cardoso launched an investment program, Avança Brasil, to stimulate economic growth. It is expected to generate a growth rate of 4–5% over the next few years and was partly a response to the strikes, the protest marches and the criticism from its own government coalition that then went on for several weeks. According to Countryaah official website, Movimento dos Sem-Terra, MST, the landless organization and the most radical national organization CUT organized protest marches (Marcha popular pelo Brasil) that gathered 100,000 people in the capital, Brasilia. On Independence Day, September 7, large anti-government demonstrations were held, organized by the Church, radicalized in response to the social consequences of the policies pursued.

The three police officers who led the Eldorado campaign in Pará in 1996, in which 19 protesting landless peasants were killed, were acquitted in August, raising major questions about the integrity of the justice system. The social situation in Brazil is still worrying with growing violence and crime. One third of the population lives in poverty, and in Rio a policeman is killed every five days.

1999 Brazil

In November 2004, the IAEA reached a preliminary agreement with Brazil on the production of enriched uranium. The organization's spokesman, Mark Gwozdecky, stated that the IAEA had visited the factory in Resende, and had taken into account the government's desire to protect technological information.

In January 2005, Parliament passed a law that provides for a one-year prison sentence for people who mock gays or women. Supporters of freedom of expression stated that this legislation would not work in practice. The same month, the government ordered the country's companies to introduce equal pay. Women often serve only 2/3 of their male counterparts.

Although Brazil has 13.5% of the world's freshwater reserves, 70% of these reserves are contaminated. 25% of the Brazilian population does not have access to tap water and many hundreds of cities do not have proper wastewater treatment.

In December 2005, Brazil lifted its debt to the IMF out of the world when it decided to accelerate the payment of $ 15.5 billion. US $ to the International Financial Institution. The repayment of the debt was financed by the country's international reserves at Danmarks Nationalbank, which totaled DKK 67 billion. US $.

Brazil opened the Resende uranium plant on May 5, 2006. With the opening, the country entered the circle of countries capable of technologically producing nuclear fuel. The country has the world's 6th largest uranium deposits, and expects to be self-sufficient in 2016 with enriched uranium.

Together in the month of São Paulo, 700 prison members of the criminal gang PCC (the Capital 1 Command) were transferred to a high-security prison. This happened after a sharp escalation in the violence in the city, which created panic, chaos and almost stopped it. On days 12-15. May hundreds of armed attacks on police and civilians took place, as well as revolts in 36 prisons. The violence cost at least 115 killed and 50 wounded. Most police officers and supposed members of the PCC.

Lula was re-elected as president in the second round of the presidential election in October with 61% of the vote. His counterpart was Geraldo Alckmin of PSDB. In her first speech, minutes after the results had been announced, Lula declared: "We are tired of being a superpower on the way. We want to grow. The foundation is there. Now it's just pulling in the work clothes ».

In July 2007, the government declared it made available hundreds of millions of US $ to fund various nuclear energy programs in the country. This included the construction of a 3rd nuclear reactor, a nuclear submarine as well as uranium enrichment projects.

Since 2000, Brazil has rapidly developed into a regional superpower. In this process, Lula has focused hard on dialogue rather than confrontation, and has therefore, on the one hand, sought cooperation with first George Bush and then Barack Obama in the US, and on the other with Raúl Castro in Cuba, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Hugo Chavez in Venezuela and most recently Mahmoud Ahmadinijead from Iran. However, at the same time, Lula has worked hard to strengthen the South-South cooperation and has initiated much closer cooperation with South Africa, India and China, which are also regional superpowers in their areas. The United States fears Brazil's development into regional superpower and this was the primary reason for the superpower reactivating its 4th navy operating in the Caribbean in 2008. This fleet had been inactive since 1950.

In May 2010, Brazil, together with Turkey, was active in resolving the security policy issues surrounding Iran's nuclear program. The three countries signed an agreement that Iran would send spent nuclear fuel to Turkey for reprocessing, in return for enriching Uranium for use in a nuclear reactor. Notwithstanding this agreement, the United States nevertheless imposed international sanctions on Iran at the UN. The tripartite agreement thus fell apart. At the same time, the United States was stressed that the superpower's policy was not about Iran's nuclear program - Israel and Pakistan already have nuclear weapons and, unlike Iran, have not signed the non-proliferation treaty. US policy and international sanctions have one purpose: to overthrow the Tehran clergy.

 

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