Brazil. Two weeks after President Fernando Henrique
Cardoso's installation for a second term in office. after
the victory in the presidential election October 4, the
currency was devalued in two rounds. In total, this meant a
devaluation of 9%. The currency had been overvalued for a
long time, but the triggering factor was a "rebellion"
against the central government initiated by the State of
Minas Gerais, former President Itamar Franco, on January 6
by suspending payments on the state's debt to the Union. The
measure caused the São Paulo Stock Exchange to fall by 5%,
causing a capital outflow of $ 5 billion during the first
half of the month, but after the devaluation, the stock
market stabilized and the capital outflow reversed. On the
other hand, foreign debt automatically went up 18% to $ 272
billion, and after a decision in the Supreme Court in
September - not to allow the government to levy social
security contributions from retired civil servants - the
government was forced to both cut government spending and
raise taxes to cover the $ 1.2 billion fall in next year's
budget that The HD decision means. A week later, therefore,
President Cardoso launched an investment program, Avança
Brasil, to stimulate economic growth. It is expected to
generate a growth rate of 4–5% over the next few years and
was partly a response to the strikes, the protest marches
and the criticism from its own government coalition that
then went on for several weeks. According to
Countryaah official website, Movimento dos Sem-Terra,
MST, the landless organization and the most radical national
organization CUT organized protest marches (Marcha popular
pelo Brasil) that gathered 100,000 people in the capital,
Brasilia. On Independence Day, September 7, large
anti-government demonstrations were held, organized by the
Church, radicalized in response to the social consequences
of the policies pursued.
The three police officers who led the Eldorado campaign
in Pará in 1996, in which 19 protesting landless peasants
were killed, were acquitted in August, raising major
questions about the integrity of the justice system. The
social situation in Brazil is still worrying with growing
violence and crime. One third of the population lives in
poverty, and in Rio a policeman is killed every five days.
In November 2004, the IAEA reached a preliminary
agreement with Brazil on the production of enriched uranium.
The organization's spokesman, Mark Gwozdecky, stated that
the IAEA had visited the factory in Resende, and had taken
into account the government's desire to protect
In January 2005, Parliament passed a law that provides
for a one-year prison sentence for people who mock gays or
women. Supporters of freedom of expression stated that this
legislation would not work in practice. The same month, the
government ordered the country's companies to introduce
equal pay. Women often serve only 2/3 of their male
Although Brazil has 13.5% of the world's freshwater
reserves, 70% of these reserves are contaminated. 25% of the
Brazilian population does not have access to tap water and
many hundreds of cities do not have proper wastewater
In December 2005, Brazil lifted its debt to the IMF out
of the world when it decided to accelerate the payment of $
15.5 billion. US $ to the International Financial
Institution. The repayment of the debt was financed by the
country's international reserves at Danmarks Nationalbank,
which totaled DKK 67 billion. US $.
Brazil opened the Resende uranium plant on May 5, 2006.
With the opening, the country entered the circle of
countries capable of technologically producing nuclear fuel.
The country has the world's 6th largest uranium deposits,
and expects to be self-sufficient in 2016 with enriched
Together in the month of São Paulo, 700 prison members of
the criminal gang PCC (the Capital 1 Command) were
transferred to a high-security prison. This happened after a
sharp escalation in the violence in the city, which created
panic, chaos and almost stopped it. On days 12-15. May
hundreds of armed attacks on police and civilians took
place, as well as revolts in 36 prisons. The violence cost
at least 115 killed and 50 wounded. Most police officers and
supposed members of the PCC.
Lula was re-elected as president in the second round of
the presidential election in October with 61% of the vote.
His counterpart was Geraldo Alckmin of PSDB. In her first
speech, minutes after the results had been announced, Lula
declared: "We are tired of being a superpower on the way. We
want to grow. The foundation is there. Now it's just pulling
in the work clothes ».
In July 2007, the government declared it made available
hundreds of millions of US $ to fund various nuclear energy
programs in the country. This included the construction of a
3rd nuclear reactor, a nuclear submarine as well as uranium
Since 2000, Brazil has rapidly developed into a regional
superpower. In this process, Lula has focused hard on
dialogue rather than confrontation, and has therefore, on
the one hand, sought cooperation with first George Bush and
then Barack Obama in the US, and on the other with Raúl
Castro in Cuba, Evo Morales in Bolivia, Hugo Chavez in
Venezuela and most recently Mahmoud Ahmadinijead from Iran.
However, at the same time, Lula has worked hard to
strengthen the South-South cooperation and has initiated
much closer cooperation with South Africa, India and China,
which are also regional superpowers in their areas. The
United States fears Brazil's development into regional
superpower and this was the primary reason for the
superpower reactivating its 4th navy operating in the
Caribbean in 2008. This fleet had been inactive since 1950.
In May 2010, Brazil, together with Turkey, was active in
resolving the security policy issues surrounding Iran's
nuclear program. The three countries signed an agreement
that Iran would send spent nuclear fuel to Turkey for
reprocessing, in return for enriching Uranium for use in a
nuclear reactor. Notwithstanding this agreement, the United
States nevertheless imposed international sanctions on Iran
at the UN. The tripartite agreement thus fell apart. At the
same time, the United States was stressed that the
superpower's policy was not about Iran's nuclear program -
Israel and Pakistan already have nuclear weapons and, unlike
Iran, have not signed the non-proliferation treaty.
US policy and international sanctions have one purpose: to
overthrow the Tehran clergy.