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Ireland

Yearbook 1999

Ireland. According to Countryaah official website, 1999 began with a political scandal that shook the Irish government after a revelation that EU commissioner Padraig Flynn received £ 50,000 in gift from real estate agent Tom Gilmartin in 1989. Flynn was environment minister in the then government and the money was a political donation to Fianna Fáil, the party that leads the current Irish coalition government. But the money was never handed over to the party, and in February Fianna Fáil demanded an explanation of where the money went. In a vote in the Dáil (Irish Parliament), whether or not an explanation was given, Flynn's daughter Beverly Cooper-Flynn voted against her own party Fianna Fáil. She lost the vote and resigned, leading to a weakening of the ruling party.

In June, the international soccer organization UEFA demanded that the EU decide the ongoing battle over the Euro 2000 football match. The Irish government refused to allow Yugoslav football players in the country in protest of the ongoing conflict in Kosovo.

In Prime Minister Bertie Ahern, the Irish who were abused during their upbringing at Irish orphanages apologized at the beginning of the year and promised to set up a commission of inquiry, The Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse, to investigate how many people of several generations who have been exposed for abuse.

On October 19, 27,500 nurses went on strike for better wages and working conditions. The Irish nurses demanded 35% in salary increases, and their strike paralyzed all care except emergency care. The Irish government refused to raise its bid over the 22% offered by concerns that other public servants would also demand salary increases.

During the year, the Irish and British governments made new joint efforts to persuade the Northern Ireland parties to form the new provincial government decided in the peace agreement on Friday, 1998. I President Mary McAleese said in a speech at the end of November that I. and Britain now stands on the eve of a new era of closer relationships. On December 2, I. took the historic step of abolishing paragraphs two and three of the Constitution, thereby abandoning its old territorial claim on Northern Ireland. The two paragraphs were written into the Irish Constitution in 1937, 21 years after the Easter rebellion against British rule. The demand to bring back the northern province has been a source of annoyance to many British governments and provoked the Unionists in the north. But after the peace deal in April 1998.

1999 Ireland

The Prehistory of Ireland

Ireland's prehistory is the history of the island of Ireland from humans settled there around 7000 before our time and up to the Middle Ages. Ireland is one of the areas in Europe richest in past memories. This is because recent cultivation has progressed less rapidly towards them than in most other countries.

Stone age

The oldest traces of people of prehistoric times in Ireland date back to 7000 BCE. Humans then fed themselves primarily on the ocean's resources. Large piles of shellfish and other debris have been found in some parts of the coast. Settlements have also been found inland. These are particularly concentrated to the river banks.

The distinction between older and younger Stone Age is based on the transition from the catch and collect economy to the agricultural economy. In the north-east of Ireland, clear examples of such a transition from capture to agricultural adaptation have been found gradually. The old hunter population has grown up with domesticated animals and learned to make ceramics before starting to grow grain.

The oldest settlements where grain cultivation is documented are dated to ca. 3700 BCE From the late 3000s there are clear traces of many and large clearings in the forest. The new agricultural economy was based on cattle, sheep and goats, all of which were originally introduced. In addition to these domestic animals, people have tamed and kept pigs.

You know of places where rectangular houses have stood, such as Lough Gur in Limerick. A hard rock (porcelain anite) found in the Antrim area was used for axes. Such axes have been found as far away as Scotland. In the younger Stone Age, large tombs such as jets and trenches were built. Such tombs are often found in groups (for example, Boyne outside Dublin).

The bell cup culture builds a bridge between the younger Stone Age and the Bronze Age. From this transition period, a number of copper works are known as flat axes and daggers. Gold ornaments (lunulae) were also made.

The bronze age

In the Bronze Age (c. 2000–600 / 500 BCE) a tradition developed in the bronze craft, and axes, daggers and daggers were exported to the continent. In addition, beautiful gold objects were made. In Ireland there were tin deposits that were in great demand. The copper sulphides were also utilized. Few finds of Bronze Age settlements have been made. On the other hand, a number of burial sites are known. The dead were buried in round piles or rubble or in stone coffins under flat ground.

Settlements on artificial islands in lakes or marsh areas are known (see crannog). This type of settlement was built until the Christian era. The earliest ring bastards are probably from this time as well.

The iron age

The Iron Age lasted from approx. 600-500 BCE to Christianity's introduction in the 400s, possibly, both crannogs and ring bourgeoisie as settlements. The chronology of the Iron Age is largely based on style analyzes of the beautifully decorated bronze objects from this period. Ireland, unlike England, was not conquered by the Romans, and the Roman influence seems to have been relatively weak.

Alongside the archaeological material, ancient laws, legends and written accounts of the Christian monks have been preserved in Ireland, all of which contribute to increased knowledge of the Iron Age community. The sources tell of a stratified society that has been led by an aristocracy. Relationships and duties towards leaders have been strong forces in society.

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