Kazakhstan. According to
Countryaah official website, Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected in
January as president for seven years. He got 82% of the vote
in a presidential election that the opposition labeled
"deeply unfair", and the OSCE refused to recognize the
result. Opposition leader and former head of government
Akezjan Kazjageldin as well as a number of other candidates
were prevented from running for election.
Financially, Kazakhstan struggled with negative growth for the
second consecutive year. After several budget revisions, the
government decided in April to allow the Kazakh currency, tenge, to float. The trade deficit had grown since the
neighboring countries' currencies fell, which in turn was a
result of the ruble crisis in the Russian Federation. Price
falls on oil, metals and grain, the country's major export
goods, also contributed to the crisis. The government
decided to revive the privatization program and try to sell
key companies in the oil and metals sector.
One week before the October parliamentary elections,
Prime Minister Nurlan Balgymbajev, officially for personal
reasons, resigned and was replaced by Foreign Minister
Kasymzjomart Tokayev. The parliamentary elections, in which
47 of the 77 seats were up for grabs, also had major
shortcomings, according to the OSCE. The opposition leader
was again barred from running, which resulted in his party,
the Republican People's Party, boycotting the election.
According to official data, the presidential support party
won the Fatherland over just over 30%, while the Communist
Party gained just under 18%. The three largest opposition
parties demanded that the election result be annulled.
At the end of the year, Tokayev presented an economic
reform program for growth, reduced inflation and reduced
unemployment until 2002. As a result, the IMF (International
Monetary Fund) approved a three-year loan of $ 400 million
In November, armed Russian separatists were arrested in
northern K. accused of wanting to carry out a coup and
proclaiming an ethnic Russian state in Kazakhstan's territory. Nearly
one-third of K's population is comprised of Russians, who
have increasingly experienced jobs and study places for
President Nazarbayev visited China in November, and both
countries declared that they would coordinate their fight
against ethnic separatism and religious fundamentalism. Tens
of thousands of Muslim Uighurs, who want self-government in
Xinjiang in northwestern China, exist as refugees in eastern
Kazakhstan, where many of the minority's ethnic relatives live.
Kazakhstan - Nur-Sultan
Nur-Sultan, to 1992 Tselinograd, 1992-98 Akmola, 1998–2019
Astana, capital of Kazakhstan; 1 million residents (2017).
Nur-Sultan is a railway hub and central city in one of the country's leading
Cereals and animal products are important raw materials in the food industry
located at the site. Other production includes workshop and consumer goods.
After the decision that Nur-Sultan was to replace Alma-Ata as the capital of
Kazakhstan, an extensive construction operation was started.
Founded in 1830 as a Russian fortification, Nur-Sultan became, under the name
of Akmolinsk, a trading center on the road from Tashkent and Buchara to
European Russia. During the 1950s, the Soviet cultivation of virgin lands in
Kazakhstan was administered from here, which resulted in the city receiving the
name Tselinograd in 1961 (of Russian tselina 'unbroken land', 'new
land'. In 1997 it became the capital of Nur-Sultan. to honor the outgoing
President Nursultan Nazarbayev.