Netherlands. According to
Countryaah official website, the country will probably be remembered in
1999 as the year of violence. In December, a shooting drama
occurred in a school in Veghel in the southern Netherlands.
A 17-year-old student shot and wounded four schoolchildren
and a teacher. It is the first time in the country's history
that there has been a shooting in a school, and the people
were shocked that this American phenomenon spread to the
Netherlands. The country has very strict gun laws. In
September, the government presented a proposal to tighten
the penalty for illegal possession of weapons from nine
months to four years.
The shootout ended another successful year for the
incumbent coalition government, the Social Democratic Party
of PvdA and the Liberal-Conservative parties VVD and D66.
Social Democratic Gov. Wim Kok has easily landed for five
years. His reign is described as an economic miracle of
increased employment, falling unemployment and above-average
economic growth in the EU. But in 1999, the warning bells
began to ring because the economy was heading for a sharp
overheating. There was a large shortage of labor, which led
the government to reevaluate the system of sickness pension,
which for decades has been administered by the social
partners. The government is dissatisfied with the way in
which unions and employers handle the sickness benefit
system. 900,000 people receive sickness pension,
At the end of the year, the government invited the social
partners to discuss moving the entire social insurance
system to the state. However, the trade unions fear that the
state wants to take over the maintenance of social insurance
systems in order to lower the level of compensation. Both
trade unions and employers see a danger in the state taking
control of social security systems. This can cause the
so-called Polder model to collapse.
The Polder model is the mainstay of the Dutch consensus
spirit and implies a consensus between the government and
the social partners. It is this consensus that is the basis
for the country's economic success in recent years.
liberalized labor market step by step.
The union central organization FNV (the equivalent of LO
/ TCO) has threatened to withdraw from all tripartite
cooperation with the government if it takes control of the
social insurance system, which could result in the
well-known Dutch consensus model being pushed down.
Amsterdam [Dutch pronunciation ɑmstərdɑʹm], capital of the Netherlands;
823,800 residents (2015). Amsterdam, which is part of the large urban
agglomeration Randstad, is together with Rotterdam the country's largest city.
Furthermore, the city is the cultural center and the leading educational place
in the Netherlands. Amsterdam is located at the confluence of the two rivers
Amstel and IJ, near Lake IJsselmeer, and has a canal connection with both the
North Sea and the Rhine. The extremely low-lying terrain has, in the city's
successive expansion, forced a comprehensive system of ramparts and canals,
which leave its mark on the entire cityscape. In 2010, part of the canal system,
built at the end of the 16th century and the beginning of the 17th century, was
included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
Amsterdam has lots of older, culturally-historically valuable buildings from
mainly the heyday during the 16th and 16th centuries. Along the tree-lined
streets ( gracht) that surrounds the city's main canals on both sides
are magnificent patrician and commercial houses with richly decorated gable
facades designed by architects such as Hendrick de Keyser, Jacob van Campen and
Philip Vingboons. Among the city's churches are the Oude Kerk, originally from
the beginning of the 13th century but rebuilt in the 16th century, and the late
Gothic Nieuwe Kerk, rebuilt in the 1640s. Centrally located is the old town hall
(1648-55), designed by Pieter Post and van Campen and with the east and west
facades adorned with sculptures by the artist Artus Quellinus d. ä. The building
is now used as a royal palace. Other prominent buildings are the central station
(1885–89) by Petrus JH Cuypers, the stock exchange building (1897–1903) by
Hendrik Petrus Berlage and the Scheepvaarthuis office complex (1912–16),
designed by the architects of the Amsterdam School.
Amsterdam has over 40 museums, including the world famous Rijksmuseum with
paintings by Rembrandt, the Stedelijk Museum with 19th and 20th century art and
Anne Frank's house. Amsterdam's prominent symphony orchestra,
Concertgebouw-Orkester (founded in 1888), has given the city an international
position as a music center. The conductors include Willem Mengelberg, Eduard van
Beinum and Bernard Haitink. In 1987, Amsterdam was the European Capital of
Amsterdam is a major financial center, with headquarters for leading banks,
insurance companies and large companies. During the 2000s, the financial sector
has grown strongly and many finance companies have moved their offices from the
center to the southern parts of the city (Zuidas).
Despite its inland location, the city is still an important port city,
especially for transit goods, although in size it has been overrun by Rotterdam.
In the formerly dominant engineering industry, the shipyard section has been
reduced, but cars and aircraft are still being manufactured. Also mentioned is
an expanding electrical and electronic industry as well as the advertising
industry. Amsterdam's breweries and liquor factories produce world-renowned
products (Heineken, Bols). A classic and very important phenomenon in
Amsterdam's business world is diamond grinding. However, most people work in the