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Peru

Yearbook 1999

Peru. The year may be said to have been marked by the outside world's criticism of the legal status in Peru. On July 7, the Congress of Peru rejected the so-called jurisdiction of the San José Tribunal (Inter-American Court of Human Rights). The reason was that it demanded a new, civil trial against four members of the MRTA guerrilla movement who were sentenced in a military court in 1994. The dismissal of three members of the Supreme Court, which refused to grant President Alberto Fujimori the right to be re-elected in April 2000, has also been criticized. According to Digopaul, the Andean Law Commission (CAJ) condemned Peru for lack of control mechanisms against the president and for an independent, inefficient and corrupt legal system. Fujimori's nationalist rhetoric against the San José Tribunal, as well as his harsh treatment of imprisoned guerrillas, are generally considered to be aimed at public opinion in Peru and to prepare it for his reelection, but also to hide Peru's poor economy suffering from a permanent liquidity crisis and poor investment climate. At the same time, the tight government reforms continue - during the year Peru has had three prime ministers. In November, however, Fujimori seemed to take the impression of the international criticism against him and promised to review the security service and its powerful chief Vladimiro Montesino's activities. The direct reason is that Peru's reputation among international investors has been hurt and that loans from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank may be conditioned by Peru's measures against lawlessness.

In July, Oscar Ramírez ("Comrade Feliciano"), the military leader of Sendero Rojo, was arrested the hard core of the now-defunct guerrilla group Sendero Luminoso who is still fighting the government.

1999 Peru

Return to parliamentary democracy

Morales faced pressure from the IMF and the oligarchy who wanted to regain political power. In 1978 elections were held for a constitutional assembly. The seats were roughly divided equally between APRA and the Christian People's Party, which represented the traditional right wing.

The AP under continued leadership of Fernando Belaunde Terry had boycotted the election to the Constitutional Assembly, but in turn won the presidential election in 80. He followed the guidelines issued by the IMF and the economic consequences were appalling: Unemployment increased, economic inequalities grew even more and a extensive informal unregulated economy without social rights - street sellers, beggars, etc. This provided social basis for the development of new guerrilla movements. In 1980, the Maoist-inspired Sendero Luminoso, under the leadership of Professor Abimael Guzman, started armed struggle in the highlands, and in 1984 MRTA (Movimiento Revolucionario Tupac Amaru entered), The revolutionary movement Tupac Amaru) forward. It was based based on the remains of MIR that had been defeated in the 60's.

In 1982, the United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) won the mayor post in the capital Lima. Faced with increasing guerrilla activity, the most affected provinces were subject to military control and in 1983 a state of emergency was introduced.

In the 1985 election, APRA candidate Alan García won with 46% of the vote. When he took over government power in July, his foreign debt exceeded $ 14 billion, of which $ 3.5 billion was paid annually in interest and repayments. García therefore stated that Peru would pay only what was equivalent to 10% of the country's export revenue and that it would negotiate directly with its creditors without the intervention of the IMF. Therefore, the international financial capital exposed Peru to a major boycott and the payment restrictions lasted less than a year.

In the second half of 1988, the country's foreign exchange reserves were exhausted, inflation was rising rapidly and the economy was in crisis. The government therefore initiated a structural adjustment policy.

 

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