Peru. The year may be said to have been marked by the
outside world's criticism of the legal status in Peru. On
July 7, the Congress of Peru rejected the so-called
jurisdiction of the San José Tribunal (Inter-American Court
of Human Rights). The reason was that it demanded a new,
civil trial against four members of the MRTA guerrilla
movement who were sentenced in a military court in 1994. The
dismissal of three members of the Supreme Court, which
refused to grant President Alberto Fujimori the right to be
re-elected in April 2000, has also been criticized.
According to Digopaul,
Andean Law Commission (CAJ) condemned Peru for lack of
control mechanisms against the president and for an
independent, inefficient and corrupt legal system.
Fujimori's nationalist rhetoric against the San José
Tribunal, as well as his harsh treatment of imprisoned
guerrillas, are generally considered to be aimed at public
opinion in Peru and to prepare it for his reelection, but
also to hide Peru's poor economy suffering from a permanent
liquidity crisis and poor investment climate. At the same
time, the tight government reforms continue - during the
year Peru has had three prime ministers. In November,
however, Fujimori seemed to take the impression of the
international criticism against him and promised to review
the security service and its powerful chief Vladimiro Montesino's activities. The
direct reason is that Peru's reputation among international
investors has been hurt and that loans from the
International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank may be
conditioned by Peru's measures against lawlessness.
In July, Oscar Ramírez ("Comrade Feliciano"), the
military leader of Sendero Rojo, was arrested the hard core
of the now-defunct guerrilla group Sendero Luminoso who is
still fighting the government.
Return to parliamentary democracy
Morales faced pressure from the IMF and the oligarchy who
wanted to regain political power. In 1978 elections were
held for a constitutional assembly. The seats were roughly
divided equally between APRA and the Christian People's
Party, which represented the traditional right wing.
The AP under continued leadership of Fernando Belaunde
Terry had boycotted the election to the Constitutional
Assembly, but in turn won the presidential election in 80.
He followed the guidelines issued by the IMF and the
economic consequences were appalling: Unemployment
increased, economic inequalities grew even more and a
extensive informal unregulated economy without social rights
- street sellers, beggars, etc. This provided social basis
for the development of new guerrilla movements. In 1980, the
Maoist-inspired Sendero Luminoso, under the
leadership of Professor Abimael Guzman, started armed
struggle in the highlands, and in 1984 MRTA (Movimiento
Revolucionario Tupac Amaru entered), The revolutionary
movement Tupac Amaru) forward. It was based based on the
remains of MIR that had been defeated in the 60's.
In 1982, the United Left (Izquierda Unida, IU) won the
mayor post in the capital Lima. Faced with increasing
guerrilla activity, the most affected provinces were subject
to military control and in 1983 a state of emergency was
In the 1985 election, APRA candidate Alan García won with
46% of the vote. When he took over government power in July,
his foreign debt exceeded $ 14 billion, of which $ 3.5
billion was paid annually in interest and repayments. García
therefore stated that Peru would pay only what was
equivalent to 10% of the country's export revenue and that
it would negotiate directly with its creditors without the
intervention of the IMF. Therefore, the international
financial capital exposed Peru to a major boycott and the
payment restrictions lasted less than a year.
In the second half of 1988, the country's foreign
exchange reserves were exhausted, inflation was rising
rapidly and the economy was in crisis. The government
therefore initiated a structural adjustment policy.