Romania. According to
Countryaah official website, ten years after the fall of communism, Romania
struggled with shrinking economy, growing unemployment and
severe social unrest. To grant loans, the International
Monetary Fund (IMF) that the budget deficit was reduced, and
that the privatization of state-owned enterprises continued
- a policy that led to the mass redundancies during the
year. Over 140,000 railway workers lost their jobs, as did
thousands of miners. Many of those who had to keep their
jobs were forced to wait months for pay.
The year was therefore marked by worker protests directed
at the Christian Democrat-led government, and growing
support for the socialist opposition. Thousands of miners
marched in Bucharest in February - a protest operation that
ended violently: one worker was killed and over 500 were
arrested by police.
In the spring, a promise was made by the World Bank that
a loan of approximately SEK 2.5 billion had been granted.
The money would be used to privatize the crisis-hit banking
system and cover the costs of closing down unprofitable
government companies. The compensation would be paid to
workers who lost their jobs when 29 state mines were closed
In June, new protests broke out among workers and now
also among teachers. The most serious took place in Brasov,
where 11,000 metal workers demanded their outstanding wages.
The government was forced to make a promise to grant a loan
to the truck and tractor factories in the city.
In July, two former ministers were sentenced to 15 years
in prison as responsible for 72 people being killed and 253
injured when police opened fire during the People's
Rebellion against the Communist regime in the city of
Timişoara in December 1989. Both were believed to have
ordered the police to open fire.
In November thousands of workers again demonstrated. In
Bucharest and other cities, demands were made for the
government's departure. Students conducted similar protests.
A study showed that four out of five Romanians were
dissatisfied with the government. The support of the
opposition leader, former president and socialist leader Ion
Iliescu, was nearly three times the support of incumbent
Christian Democratic president Emil Constantinescu. Over 60%
even stated that they were doing better financially under
dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu. With average salaries of
approximately SEK 800, the Romanians are among the poorest
in Eastern Europe.
At the beginning of December, the railway workers went on
a nationwide strike demanding higher wages and against the
layoffs within the loss-making state railway company. Only
through court intervention could the workers be forced back
In December, at its Helsinki summit, the EU decided that
Romania should begin negotiations on membership in the Union
in 2000. The decision was partly seen as a thank-you for
Romania's support for NATO's war against neighboring
Yugoslavia during the spring Kosovo crisis. But the EU
called for a rapid economic recovery and stabilization plan,
as well as urgent action to improve conditions at the
country's home for orphans.
Just returning from Helsinki, the president dismissed the
head of government Radu Vasile, after Christian Democratic
ministers revolted against his party brother. The government
crisis led, among other things. to the IMF withholding
planned loan disbursements.
Romanian central bank governor Mugur Isarescu was
appointed new prime minister, and new foreign minister Petre
Roman, head of government in the early 1990s after the fall
of the Ceauşescur regime.
Romania - Bucharest
Bucharest, Romanian București, capital of Romania, located on the
Valakian plain on the river Dîmbovița; 1. 9 million residents (2012), with
suburbs 2. 3 million. Bucharest is the country's administrative, cultural and
economic center. It is also Romania's leading industrial city, with a clear
concentration on the heavier industry, especially the metal and engineering
industries. Furthermore, there is the food and textile industry and the graphic
industry. Bucharest, with its two airports and two major railway stations, is
Romania's most important communication center.
At Romania's creation, Bucharest was still an Oriental city, made up of a
number of villages. In the late 1800s and early 1900s, the city adopted in its
central parts a Western European metropolis with monumental buildings and
Paris-inspired boulevards ("Balkans Paris"). Despite this, a large number of
irregular, medieval features are still found in the central Bucharest city plan.
Following the communist takeover of power in 1947, Bucharest was provided with
some of the traditional socialist urban planning attributes, such as the
Stalinist-style skyscraper Casa Scînteii. Bucharest was subjected to extensive
demolitions in the 1980s, under increasingly severe dictatorship, even by the
older housing stock. Orthodox churches, to give way to splendid buildings,
including the People's House, which is one of the world's largest buildings, and
parades in honor of the regime. The city's most notable buildings are the
Athenaeum Concert Hall, the former royal palace (today the Republic Palace), the
modern congress hall and a number of churches. In addition to universities from
1864, Bucharest has a number of colleges and a number of museums and theaters,
including the National Theater.
In the Middle Ages, Bucharest served as a marketplace, but did not become a
formal city until the late Middle Ages. Bucharest was the first capital of the
prince of Valakia and from 1861 for the newly formed state of Romania. During
the First World War, the city was the scene of a major battle, ending in defeat
for Romania against Germany. Bucharest was severely injured during World War II
bombings, as well as during a 1977 earthquake.
In Bucharest, peace was struck between Russia and Turkey in 1812, with the
Russians receiving Bessarabia and eastern Moldova. The Second Balkan War ended
in 1913 with an end to peace in Bucharest, whereby Bulgaria lost most of the
areas it had won in the First Balkan War. Dobrudsja to Romania.
In the Battle of Bucharest in late November and early December 1916, German,
Austro-Hungarian and Bulgarian troops defeated the Romanian army. The city was
under German occupation from December 1916 to November 1918. In January 1941,
the Legionnaires, the successors to the Järngardet, made an attempt to seize
power that failed. The coup makers conducted a pogrom in Bucharest before the
uprising, killing 125 Jews.
In 1944, Bucharest was bombed on numerous occasions, first by the Allies and
then by the German Luftwaffe after a coup d'état was carried out, which resulted
in the overthrow of Germany-friendly General Ion Antonescu, after which Romania
moved to the Allied side.