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the original Yugoslav federation was dissolved in 1990.
Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia were
former republics of the Yugoslav federation, but are now
In the 4th century BCE, the Balkans and the Adriatic
coast were inhabited by the Illyrians, the Trekkers, the
Pantheons and the Greek colonialists. In the middle of the
2nd century BCE, Rome conquered an alliance of Illyrian
people and began the colonization of the new Illyrian
province. A number of important Roman cities such as Emona
(today Ljubljana), Mursa (today Osijek) and Singidunum
(today Belgrade) were created. When the Roman Empire was
divided into an eastern and western part, the border passed
through Yugoslavia. Christianity was introduced at the end
of Roman supremacy.
In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was invaded by a
number of different nomadic people: western and eastern
Goths, females, Bulgarians and slaves. They brought their
own religions. Christianity first won again in the 9-11.
century foothold. In the 7th to 13th centuries, a number of
feudal states emerged. The Serbs were divided into several
principals and were unable to withstand the pressure from
outside. Bosnia was subjugated by Hungary and the rest of
Byzans - until the formation of the state of Ducla.
Macedonia was divided between Byzans and Bulgaria. (See also
Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia).
In the middle of the 11th century Serbia under Esteban
Nemanic's kingdom (1168-1196) freed itself from Byzantine
domination. The Serbian leaders of the Nemanic dynasty
fought against the non-Christian religions that existed in
the Balkans. In particular, the purpose was to motivate the
pope to give them the title of king. This succeeded in 1217,
but did not lead to increased dissemination of the Catholic
faith. In 1219 the Serbian Church was established, which
held fairs in Serbian. During the reign of Esteban Ducán
(1331-1355), the medieval Serbian state achieved its
greatest expansion as it also occupied Albania and
Serbia - Belgrade
Belgrade, Serbian Belgrade, capital of Serbia; 1. 2 million
residents (2012). Belgrade is located on the banks of the river Sava in the
Danube, on the border between the Central European Plains and the mountainous
area of Serbia.
The strategic location has led to constant wars and conquests for more than
two millennia, and the city has been completely destroyed several times but has
always resurfaced in new form. Today's big city is for the most part a
20th-century product with lingering Serbian small-town features. After the
Second World War, the Novi Belgrade district was added to the low-lying area
north of Sava. a large convention center. The city's buildings include the
Kalemegdan fortress from Turkish times and the Beograðanka high-rise. The
largest church building in the Orthodox world, the Church of the Holy Savior,
was started in 1937 and is still under construction in Belgrade.
Business and communications
After World War II, Belgrade consolidated its position as the country's
leading industrial city. However, the Yugoslav wars, the Kosovo conflict and the
sanctions imposed by the EU and the UN in 1991-95 led to an economic and social
decline. It wasn't until the 00s that the city really started to recover.
Most industries are represented, but the focus has traditionally been on the
food, engineering and textile industries. Recently, there has been a certain
shift in the structure of business towards more service production and high-tech
production. Industries such as the chemical and electrotechnical and IT
industries have grown in importance. several major software and computer
manufacturers have established themselves in the city. Many in or near the
Airport City business park established in 2007.
Belgrade is also a major financial center for the region as well as an
important hub for rail, aviation and river transport, including international
Education and culture
Belgrade has a university (founded in 1863) and a large number of colleges.
Some 30 museums and galleries include the National Museum (current building from
1903) and the Museum of Modern Art (1965). The first of the city's seven
theaters is the National Theater (1869).
Belgrade's history is characterized by destruction, escape, deportations and
reprisals in many times through the ages. The city originated in a Celtic fort
from the 300s BC, where the Romans built a legion camp ( Singidunum )
at the beginning of the empire. It was destroyed by the Huns 442 and repeatedly
conquered by Germanic, Slavic and other tribes over the following centuries.
During the Middle Ages, the city often gained new rulers. After a few
centuries of Slavic rule, Belgrade first came to rule from Byzantium, then in
the 12th century the city became Serbian. During the 15th century the Turks
penetrated farther north, but until 1521 Belgrade resisted the attacks with
Hungarian assistance. Then followed nearly 350 years of Turkish rule,
interrupted by three Christian occupations. During the late 16th century and the
main part of the 17th century, the city experienced a heyday and with about
100,000 residents became "a second Constantinople".
Constant war and devastation then reduced Belgrade's population, and until
the breakthrough of industrialism, Belgrade remained a small town. The last
Turkish fortress, Kalemegdan, was evacuated in 1867. Belgrade soon became the
capital of Serbia and, after the First World War, the capital of Yugoslavia. The
two world wars again brought trials to the city, during the Second World War
because of Nazi Germany's consistent racial politics.
The post-war period has involved the explosive development of Belgrade. The
1990 boycott of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia temporarily slowed this
development, but it has since regained momentum. NATO bombings in 1999 also
damaged the city's infrastructure.