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Serbia

1999 Serbia

According to Countryaah official website, the original Yugoslav federation was dissolved in 1990. Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia were former republics of the Yugoslav federation, but are now independent states.

History

In the 4th century BCE, the Balkans and the Adriatic coast were inhabited by the Illyrians, the Trekkers, the Pantheons and the Greek colonialists. In the middle of the 2nd century BCE, Rome conquered an alliance of Illyrian people and began the colonization of the new Illyrian province. A number of important Roman cities such as Emona (today Ljubljana), Mursa (today Osijek) and Singidunum (today Belgrade) were created. When the Roman Empire was divided into an eastern and western part, the border passed through Yugoslavia. Christianity was introduced at the end of Roman supremacy.

In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was invaded by a number of different nomadic people: western and eastern Goths, females, Bulgarians and slaves. They brought their own religions. Christianity first won again in the 9-11. century foothold. In the 7th to 13th centuries, a number of feudal states emerged. The Serbs were divided into several principals and were unable to withstand the pressure from outside. Bosnia was subjugated by Hungary and the rest of Byzans - until the formation of the state of Ducla. Macedonia was divided between Byzans and Bulgaria. (See also Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia).

In the middle of the 11th century Serbia under Esteban Nemanic's kingdom (1168-1196) freed itself from Byzantine domination. The Serbian leaders of the Nemanic dynasty fought against the non-Christian religions that existed in the Balkans. In particular, the purpose was to motivate the pope to give them the title of king. This succeeded in 1217, but did not lead to increased dissemination of the Catholic faith. In 1219 the Serbian Church was established, which held fairs in Serbian. During the reign of Esteban Ducán (1331-1355), the medieval Serbian state achieved its greatest expansion as it also occupied Albania and Macedonia.

Serbia - Belgrade

Belgrade

Belgrade, Serbian Belgrade, capital of Serbia; 1. 2 million residents (2012). Belgrade is located on the banks of the river Sava in the Danube, on the border between the Central European Plains and the mountainous area of ​​Serbia.

Cityscape

The strategic location has led to constant wars and conquests for more than two millennia, and the city has been completely destroyed several times but has always resurfaced in new form. Today's big city is for the most part a 20th-century product with lingering Serbian small-town features. After the Second World War, the Novi Belgrade district was added to the low-lying area north of Sava. a large convention center. The city's buildings include the Kalemegdan fortress from Turkish times and the Beograðanka high-rise. The largest church building in the Orthodox world, the Church of the Holy Savior, was started in 1937 and is still under construction in Belgrade.

Business and communications

After World War II, Belgrade consolidated its position as the country's leading industrial city. However, the Yugoslav wars, the Kosovo conflict and the sanctions imposed by the EU and the UN in 1991-95 led to an economic and social decline. It wasn't until the 00s that the city really started to recover.

Most industries are represented, but the focus has traditionally been on the food, engineering and textile industries. Recently, there has been a certain shift in the structure of business towards more service production and high-tech production. Industries such as the chemical and electrotechnical and IT industries have grown in importance. several major software and computer manufacturers have established themselves in the city. Many in or near the Airport City business park established in 2007.

Belgrade is also a major financial center for the region as well as an important hub for rail, aviation and river transport, including international airport.

Education and culture

Belgrade has a university (founded in 1863) and a large number of colleges. Some 30 museums and galleries include the National Museum (current building from 1903) and the Museum of Modern Art (1965). The first of the city's seven theaters is the National Theater (1869).

History

Belgrade's history is characterized by destruction, escape, deportations and reprisals in many times through the ages. The city originated in a Celtic fort from the 300s BC, where the Romans built a legion camp ( Singidunum ) at the beginning of the empire. It was destroyed by the Huns 442 and repeatedly conquered by Germanic, Slavic and other tribes over the following centuries.

During the Middle Ages, the city often gained new rulers. After a few centuries of Slavic rule, Belgrade first came to rule from Byzantium, then in the 12th century the city became Serbian. During the 15th century the Turks penetrated farther north, but until 1521 Belgrade resisted the attacks with Hungarian assistance. Then followed nearly 350 years of Turkish rule, interrupted by three Christian occupations. During the late 16th century and the main part of the 17th century, the city experienced a heyday and with about 100,000 residents became "a second Constantinople".

Constant war and devastation then reduced Belgrade's population, and until the breakthrough of industrialism, Belgrade remained a small town. The last Turkish fortress, Kalemegdan, was evacuated in 1867. Belgrade soon became the capital of Serbia and, after the First World War, the capital of Yugoslavia. The two world wars again brought trials to the city, during the Second World War because of Nazi Germany's consistent racial politics.

The post-war period has involved the explosive development of Belgrade. The 1990 boycott of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia temporarily slowed this development, but it has since regained momentum. NATO bombings in 1999 also damaged the city's infrastructure.

 

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