Somalia. In divided Somalia, clan militia began to turn
into tools for the warring neighbors of Ethiopia and
Eritrea. Ethiopian forces led the search for the Oromo
guerrilla OLF and other resistance movements deep into
Somalia. According to
Countryaah official website, the Ethiopians had an ally in the Rahanweyn
Resistance Army (RRA), which fights for control of parts of
southwestern Somalia in conflict with the warlord Hussein
Aidid and who in June occupied the important city of Baidoa.
Aidid provided the OLF with Eritrean weapons, many of which
stayed with his own militia.
In November, Aidid agreed with Ethiopia to suspend
cooperation with OLF. The Oromogerilla was disarmed and
ordered to leave Somalia. In return, Ethiopia promised to
evacuate occupied land in Somalia. The agreement, a result
of Libyan and Egyptian mediation, came to fruition after OLF
was already weakened by losses inside Ethiopia.
Peace and some economic recovery prevailed in the
outbreak republic of Somaliland in the northwest. President
Mohammed Ibrahim Egal visited the United States and appealed
to the UN for international recognition.
In February 2012, a conference on Somalia in London was
attended by representatives from 60 countries and the UN.
However, the conference did not have the participation of
al-Shabaab, who continued to control half the country. The
focus of the conference was neither peace nor the extensive
human rights violations in the country, but the pirate
company that cost the British insurance companies with
Lloyds at the forefront. UN Secretary-General Ban Ki Moon
called for an extension of the conflict by increasing AMISOM
from 12,000 to 17,000 soldiers.
In August 2012, Parliament passed a new interim
constitution, which transformed Somalia into a federation of
In September 2012, presidential elections were held. The
president was elected by parliament. In the first round,
Hassan Sheikh Mohamud got 22.2% of parliamentarians votes,
while Sharif Sheikh Ahmed got 23.7%. In the second round,
Mohamud got 70.6% while Ahmed got 29.4%. Six days after the
election, Mohamud was deployed to the post, and in October
he appointed Abdi Farah Shirdon as his prime minister.
Al-Shabaab repeatedly tried to hit the president. Two
days after the election and before he was deployed, two
al-Shabaab suicide bombers burst into the air at the Jazeera
hotel, where Mohamud was speaking. 10 were killed but
Mohamud escaped. In September 2013, his car driver passed a
roadside bomb, but he survived as well.
The president's immediate goal was to lift the UN arms
embargo of the country adopted by the Security Council in
1992. However, heavier weapons and ground-to-air rockets
were still subject to blockade. In March 2014, the
suspension of the blockade was extended for another 7
In 2013, both government forces and al-Shabaab faced
serious human rights violations: targeted killings, child
soldiers recruitment, arbitrary trials, attacks on
journalists, rape. In addition, major actions were taken by
al-Shabaab in Mogadishu: In April, the movement attacked the
central court of Mogadishu, 30 were killed; In June, the UN
complex in Mogadishu was attacked, 14 killed; In September,
the Village restaurant was attacked and 15 killed. However,
al-Shabaab's most extensive attack was the attack on the
Westgate shopping center in Nairobi, Kenya in September that
cost 67 lives.
In August 2013, the central government signed a
reconciliation agreement with the autonomous Jubaland
government in northern Somalia. As part of the agreement,
Jubaland was to continue to be ruled by the autonomous
government for the next two years, but with Mohamud as
president, and Jubaland's military was to be integrated into
the central government's military forces.
The European Court of Human Rights issued a ruling in
September confirming that a rejected Somali asylum seeker
could be sent back from Sweden to Somalia. The Human Rights
Court's ruling was sharply criticized by international human