Austria Arts in 19th Century

The Franzensburg in Laxenburg Palace Park, a major work of Romantic Neo-Gothic, was created from 1798. The main exponents of classicism, which appeared in various forms in Vienna, were LJ Montoyer (Albertina, 1801-04; Palais Rasumofsky, 1803-07) and Josef Georg Kornhäusel (* 1782, † 1860; interior work on the Albertina, 1822–23). The latter created numerous civil buildings in Vienna and Baden. P. von Nobile (Vienna, Theseus temple in the Volksgarten, 1820–23, and Äusses Burgtor, 1821–24) oriented himself from v. a. at antiquity. Important architectural monuments of early historicism are the neo-Gothic Grafenegg Castle (1845 ff., By Leopold Ernst, * 1808, † 1862), the Vienna Arsenal (1849–56, by A. Sicard von Sicardsburg and E. van der Nüll; Museum building by T. von Hansen), the Vienna Votive Church (1855–79, by H. von Ferstel) and the likewise neo-Gothic cathedral in Linz (1862 ff., By Vincenz Statz, * 1819, † 1898). The Viennese Ringstrasse, laid out by imperial order from 1857 according to a basic plan approved in 1859 (proposals by L. Förster, among others), with its public and private buildings and parks, became the most important urban ensemble (splendid boulevard) of historicism. The neo-renaissance and neo-baroque styles dominate the pluralism of the Ringstrasse: Sicardsburg and van der Nüll built the opera (1861–69), T. von Hansen the Musikverein (1867–70) and the Academy of Fine Arts (1872–77), H. von Ferstel the University (1873–84). G. Semper and C. Hasenauer are the architects of the Burgtheater (1874–88), the court museums (1871–91) and the New Hofburg (1881–1913). The latter is part of a huge, unfinished »Kaiserforum« planned by Semper in1869. The parliament (1871–83) was built in a Graecizing style by T. von Hansen, and the town hall (1872–83) in neo-Gothic forms by F. von Schmidt. With Ludwig Baumanns (* 1853, † 1936) Buildings (Ministry of War, 1909–13; Berndorf Church, 1910–17), historicism ended in a frozen neo-baroque style. Up until the end of the monarchy, the varieties of historicism that had been shaped in Vienna dominated the whole of Austria in churches, administrative and cultural buildings, villas and residential buildings.


Classicism and Biedermeier reduced the tasks for sculptors. FA Zauner , J. M. Fischer and JN Schaller created monuments, portrait busts and fountains in Vienna; The order for the tomb of Archduchess Marie Christine (Vienna, Augustinian Church, 1798–1805) was given to the Venetian A. Canova . By Joseph Klieber (* 1773, † 1850) numerous Lünettenreliefs come Vormarz of Viennese buildings. Masterpieces of bronze casting are A. Fernkorn’s equestrian statues on Heldenplatz (ArchdukeKarl, 1853–59; Prince Eugen, 1860-65). As a result, due to the construction of the Ringstrasse and the general cult of monuments, sculpture again gained great importance. Important sculptors were among others. C. von Zumbusch, Carl Kundmann (* 1838, † 1919), V. Tilgner, R. Weyr, Edmund Hellmer (* 1850, † 1935). V. Tilgner and R. Weyr are considered to be the main representatives of neo-baroque.

According to aparentingblog, crafts and arts and crafts of Biedermeier (furniture, porcelain u. A.) are characterized v. a. characterized by noble formal restraint. The applied arts of historicism received significant impulses from the founding of the Austrian Museum of Applied Arts in Vienna (1864) and the affiliated school of applied arts (1867).


The dominant artist in Classicism Vienna was the history painter and portraitist F. H. Füger, who headed the Vienna Academy from 1795–1806. J. B. Lampi the Elder achieved international renown as a portraitist. The Tyrolean J. A. Koch, who lives in Rome, had a lasting influence on landscape painting. Religious topics gained new meaning through the “Lukasbund”, which, supported by national-religious and romantic enthusiasm, was founded by the Germans F. Pforr and F. Overbeck in Vienna in 1809 and turned against the teaching methods of the academy (Nazarenes). This group included Ludwig Ferdinand Schnorr von Carolsfeld (* 1788, † 1853), J. von Führich (including fresco program for the Altlerchenfeld Church in Vienna, 1851–61; Bible illustrations) and L. Kupelwieser (including frescoes in the Lower Austrian Lieutenancy in Vienna, 1848–50).

The painters of the Viennese Biedermeier period achieved significant achievements. JP Krafft created time-related history pictures; F. von Amerling and F. Eybl were important portraitists; Primarily as genre painters were P. Fendi, J. Danhauser,Johann Matthias Ranftl (* 1805, † 1854), Michael Neder (* 1807, † 1882), Johann Baptist Reiter (* 1813, † 1890) and Carl Schindler (* 1821, † 1842) active. Landscape painters such as Franz Steinfeld (* 1787, † 1868), Friedrich Loos (* 1797, † 1890),Thomas Ender (* 1793, † 1875), F. Gauermann and the poet A. Stifter were precise realists, committed to the natural model. A keen observation of nature and the rejection of romantic and academic tendencies characterize the work of FG Waldmüller , the authoritative Austrian painter of his time, which encompasses all subjects.

FH Füger and MM Daffinger created excellent portrait miniatures. Josef Kriehuber (* 1800, † 1876) documented Viennese society with portrait lithographs. Became popular M. von Schwind as late romantic fairy tale illustrator and muralist. Watercolor painting is also of high quality (especially von Alt). A. von Pettenkofen found a realistic representation of the country and its residents in Szolnok, Hungary. In the buildings of the Ringstrasse era, monumental painting was given new tasks. The history painters are Carl Rahl (* 1812, † 1865) and Carl von Blaas (* 1815, † 1894) to be mentioned (frescoes in the Vienna Arsenal, 1863–64 and 1859–71, respectively). The dominant and eponymous personality of the late Viennese historicism (also with regard to lifestyle, fashion, home decor, applied art) was the “painter prince” H. Makart (” Makart period”). He created virtuoso portraits, lavish decorative pieces and large-format history pictures. Hans Canon (* 1829, † 1885;ceiling fresco in the staircase of the Natural History Museum in Vienna, 1884–85) was also based on baroque models. The early work of G. Klimt , who worked with his brother Ernst (* 1864, † 1892) and Franz Matsch (* 1861, † 1942), can also beassigned to historicism. was involved in the decoration of the Burgtheater (1886–88) and the Kunsthistorisches Museum (1890–91). A notable outsider was A. Romako, who proves to be a forerunner of Austrian modernism with psychologizing portraits. Leopold Carl Müller (* 1834, † 1892) became known as an oriental painter. The Tyrolean F. von Defregger remained a painter of the Munich school despite his homeland-related depictions.

The most important personality of Austrian mood impressionism, a subjective, emotion-oriented open-air painting, was EJ Schindler . Other representatives of this important direction are E. Jettel, Robert Russ (* 1847, † 1922) and Theodor von Hörmann (* 1840, † 1895), as well as Tina Blau, Olga Wisinger-Florian (* 1844, † 1926) and initially Carl Minor (* 1861, † 1945). C. Schuch was a loner within Austrian art, whose subtle still lifes anticipated developments in the modern era.

Austria Arts in 19th Century

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