Guinea-Bissau 1999

In 1999, the population of Guinea-Bissau was estimated at approximately 1.2 million people. The economy of the country is based largely on agriculture and fisheries. Its main industries are fishing, cashew processing and timber production. Guinea-Bissau has a long history of strong foreign relations with other countries in West Africa and beyond. In terms of politics, Guinea-Bissau has a semi-presidential system with João Bernardo Vieira as President since 2005. He was re-elected in 1999 for his second term in office and his African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde party continued to hold a majority in Parliament. See ethnicityology for Guinea-Bissau in the year of 2018.

Yearbook 1999

Guinea-Bissau 1999

Guinea Bissau. New battles broke out at the beginning of the year, but the parties continued to fulfill the peace agreement of November last year. In March, the Senegalese and Guinean troops left the country and were replaced by a 600-man force from the West African cooperation organization ECOWAS.

In April, a parliamentary committee released former commander Ansumane Mané from all involvement in arms smuggling to separatists in Senegal. It also stated that the culprits were some forty of President João Bernardo Vieira’s supporters and that he had been aware of their involvement.

In early May, Bissau was again shaken by fierce fighting, which was caused by the government’s refusal to disband the 600-strong presidential guard, which the parties agreed to in the peace agreement. President Vieira was toppled in a coup on May 7. After fierce fighting in the capital, a military junta led by former commander Ansumane Mané took power. The Rebels had control over most of the country before. The week after the coup, in accordance with the constitution, the former Speaker of Parliament Malan Bacai Sanha was appointed new President.

The deposed president, who sought protection at the Portuguese embassy in Bissau, was allowed to leave the country in early June and was later granted political asylum in Portugal. Several people who were close to Vieira, including former Prime Minister Carlos Correia, was arrested in late July. Before that, the West African Peace Force had left the country.

Visit Countryaah official website to get information about the capital city of Guinea Bissau. Parliamentary and presidential elections were held on November 28. The fight was between 13 parties and twelve presidential candidates. According to international observers, the election was largely correct. No decisive decision could be reached in the presidential election, and a new round of elections was planned for the beginning of 2000. The fight then stands between the opposition Kumba Yalla and Sanha from the PAIGC (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné Bissau).

  • Also see to see the acronym of GNB which stands for Guinea-Bissau and other definitions of this 3-letter abbreviation.

Map of Guinea-Bissau Bissau in English

The parliamentary election was a success for Yalla’s party PRS (Partido para a Renovaçao Social), which received 38 seats, followed by RGB with 28 and PAIGC with 24 seats.


Among the first lands of West Africa reached by the Portuguese in the 15th century, Guinea-Bissau in 1879 became a colony in itself, elevated in 1951 to the status of an overseas province. The independence leader Amilcar Cabral , founder in 1956 of the Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e do Cabo Verde (PAIGC), was the ideologue of a decolonization not limited to the conquest of independence but aimed at transforming society by aiming together at sovereignty and socialism. The armed struggle that began in 1963 led to the liberation of a large part of the territory and a National Assembly in December 1973 unilaterally proclaimed independence, recognized by Portugal only in 1974, after the fall of the Salazar regime. Assassinated in January 1973 Cabral, his half-brother Luis, who had succeeded him at the helm of the PAIGC, was elected president of the Republic. In 1980 a coup d’etat ousted L. Cabral and installed JB Vieira, the most popular military commander of the liberation struggle, who opened the country to private initiative and assistance from the West. The introduction, in 1991, of multi-partyism did not produce substantial political changes: the monopoly of the PAIGC remained unchanged until 1998 when, following a military uprising, the country plunged into civil war. The elections held in 1999 gave victory to the Partido para a renovação social, whose leader, K. Yala, was elected president (2000), but in 2003 and 2004 new military pronouncements shook the country. Thrown Yala (2003), Vieira returned to power, who, re-elected to the presidency in 2005, was assassinated in 2009 by rebel soldiers in retaliation for the killing of the army chief of staff, General Tagmé Na Waié.In his place was elected Malam Bacai Sanhá, whose death in January 2012 occurred in conjunction with a coup attempt aimed at undermining the power of the military. In April the interim presidencywas entrusted to the president of the National Assembly R. Pereira, who had already hired her in 2009, after Vieira’s death, but in the same month the military junta, which took office after a coup d’etat removed him and appointed him president of the government of transition MS Nhamadjo, which has called in its executive members of the Partido Africano para a Independência da Guiné and Cabo Verde (Paigc), the party that holds the majority of seats in Parliament. The presidential elections, scheduled for 2013 and then postponed to April 2014, saw the winner JM Vaz, a member of the PAIGC; Prime Minister from July 2014 to August 2015 was DS Pereira, leader of the PAIGC, dismissed by President Vaz in August and replaced in September of the same year by C. Correia, who formed a new government the following month. In April 2018, due to the protracted phase of clear political instability that saw a succession of lightning governments, Vaz appointed A. Gomes as the new prime minister of the country, however dismissing him in October 2019 and entrusting him with the task of leading a new executive at FF Imbali, who resigned the following month. In the same month of November the first round of the presidential consultations took place, in which DS Pereira (40.1% of the votes) of Paigc and UC Embaló (27.6%), who obtained the 53rd in the ballot, won. 5% of the votes, taking over from Vaz from January of the following year.

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