Hungarian art, term for the art of the people of Hungary.
First finds from the time of the Pannonia conquest after the retreat of the Romans and the settlement by the Huns and Avars (around 896) reveal connections with steppe art.
Romanesque and Gothic
According to andyeducation, the development of an independent Hungarian art began after the coronation of Stephen I as king (1000). The prerequisite for this was the establishment of eight dioceses around the archbishopric of Kalocsa and Esztergom as well as the establishment of several abbeys (e.g. Pannonhalma, 996).
At the time of the founding of the state (1000–38) three-aisled basilicas were built in Székesfehérvár, Eger, Gyulafehérvár, Veszprém, Kalocsa. Secular and ecclesiastical aristocrats founded churches and monasteries for their own burial place in the 11th century, usually characterized by a western gallery and sparse, simple ornamentation (cathedral in Pécs, 1038–69; Benedictine monastery Tihany, 1055; monastery Feldebrö, 1042–44).
In addition, a new type of three-aisled basilica without a transept developed (St. Albert Cathedral in Esztergom); Figure capitals became fashionable. In the 12th century, the Pannonhalma Abbey (1137 ff.) And the cathedral in Pécs (2nd half of the 12th century) were rebuilt after fires. Géza II founded the first Cistercian monastery, Cikádor. The large Romanesque churches in Lébény (1202-08), the Benedictine Abbey Ják (1220-41) and the Premonstratensian Church in Zsámbék near Budapest (founded in 1234; only preserved as a ruin) were built. Romanesque are among others. also the churches in Csempeszkovács, Nagybörzsöny and Egregy.
At the same time, the Lombard influence determined the sacred buildings (Székesfehérvár, Pécs, Esztergom) and the early Gothic style of the Ilê de France was formative (Pécs). Esztergom Castle was also redesigned in the early Gothic style (after 1172–96; palace chapel, Porta Speciosa). From there, a wave of reception of Gothic influences began in the 13th century (Cistercian church Pilis, founded in 1184, especially the grave of Gertrudis, 1220–30 in the Chartres style; Bélapátfalva, founded in 1232; Vertésszentkereszt abbey church, early 13th century).
Among the secular buildings, the new royal seat in Óbuda (1235) and the transformation of the palace in Visegráds into the new royal seat (1323) stand out.
In the middle of the 13th century, the Gothic style with natural plant ornamentation emerged (former Franciscan church in Sopron, German Ödenburg, 1278 ff.), Which was enriched in the 14th century under the Anjou by other French and Italian forms and until the 16th century. remained dominant (parish church in Budapest). At the same time, from around 1400 BC, a. in sculpture, the southern German Gothic and the Parlerstil (Matthias Church in Budapest, founded in 1225). Among the palaces and castles of the time, those in Visegrád, Sárospatak and the knight castles of Sümeg, Cseszmek and Hollókő are particularly noteworthy. A special form of the castle with four corner towers (e.g. in Diosgyör, today Miskolc) emerged in the 14th century.
In the fresco painting, the Byzantine influence (crypt of the parish church in Feldebrő near Eger [German Erlau], end of the 12th century) by French (Magdalenenkirche in Sopronbánfalva, today Sopron; Sankt Andreas in Hidegség near Sopron; Calvinist church in Vizsoly, district Borsod -Abaúj-Zemplén), later replaced by Italian influences (castle chapel in Esztergom, 14th century).
The first panel paintings (15th century) combined features of the German with those of the Italian Gothic (Master M. S., active towards the end of the 15th / beginning of the 16th century, main altar of the Marienkirche in Banská Štiavnica [German Schemnitz, Hungarian Selmecbánya], around 1506).
To develop in the outskirts of Transylvania, Slovak art.
Compared to the civil art of the cities, art at the court of the Anjou and Luxembourgers was aristocratic-European (Gothic statues in the castle of Buda). Under Matthias I Corvinus, the Italian Renaissance found its way early on (reconstruction of the Buda Castle, Bibliotheca Corvina, furnishing of the Visegrád summer residence).
Under Wladislaw II Jagiello the style spread over Moravia to Poland and was adopted by the dignitaries at the court who acted as patrons, e.g. B. by T. Bakócz (chapel in Esztergom, between 1506 and 1510) and the members of the Thurzó family (Johann, * 1464, † 1520; Stanislaus, † 1540; Sigismund, † 1512). Renaissance elements are preserved at the castles in Siklós, Sárospatak and Sárvár.
Predominantly Austrian artists and role models determined the baroque art that flourished after the Turkish occupation under the rule of the Habsburgs. After recatholization in the 17th century, the churches in the bishops’ seats of Vác, Szombathely, Veszprém and Kalocsa were redesigned; the building activity of the religious orders was particularly influential, v. a. of the Jesuits (Jesuit churches in Nagyszombat [today Trnava, Slovakia], 1629–37, and Györ, 1635–41).
Monasteries, churches and secular buildings were decorated with huge frescoes by Austrian painters in Vác, Kalocsa and Györ (FA Maulbertsch ), Eger (JL Kracker ), Szigetvár and Sopron (István Dorffmeister, * 1729, † 1779).
In the second half of the 18th century, after the Serbs had settled in Ráckeve and Szentendre (German Sankt Andrä), Greek Orthodox churches were built. Outstanding castle buildings are among others. the Baroque Eszterházy Castle in Fertőd (1760–69 including the former hunting lodge from 1720) and the castles in Hatvan (1754–63) and Gödöllö (1744–48) commissioned by Count Antal Grassalkovich (* 1694, † 1771).
Remarkable evidence of the late Baroque can be found in Vác (Cathedral of the Assumption of the Virgin, 1761–77; Triumphal Arch, 1764).