Kazakhstan 1999

In 1999, the population of Kazakhstan was estimated at approximately 16 million people. The economy of the country is based largely on services, industry and agriculture. Its main industries are oil and gas, mining and manufacturing. Kazakhstan has a long history of strong foreign relations with other countries in Central Asia and beyond. In terms of politics, Kazakhstan has had a presidential republic with Nursultan Nazarbayev as President since 1999. His Nur Otan Party continued to hold a majority in Parliament after their victory in the 1999 elections. See ethnicityology for Kazakhstan in the year of 2018.

Yearbook 1999

Kazakhstan 1999

Kazakhstan. Visit Countryaah official website to get information about the capital city of Kazakhstan. Nursultan Nazarbayev was re-elected in January as president for seven years. He got 82% of the vote in a presidential election that the opposition labeled “deeply unfair”, and the OSCE refused to recognize the result. Opposition leader and former head of government Akezjan Kazjageldin as well as a number of other candidates were prevented from running for election.

  • Also see Abbreviationfinder.org to see the acronym of KAZ which stands for Kazakhstan and other definitions of this 3-letter abbreviation.

Map of Kazakhstan Nur-Sultan in English

Financially, Kazakhstan struggled with negative growth for the second consecutive year. After several budget revisions, the government decided in April to allow the Kazakh currency, tenge, to float. The trade deficit had grown since the neighboring countries’ currencies fell, which in turn was a result of the ruble crisis in the Russian Federation. Price falls on oil, metals and grain, the country’s major export goods, also contributed to the crisis. The government decided to revive the privatization program and try to sell key companies in the oil and metals sector.

One week before the October parliamentary elections, Prime Minister Nurlan Balgymbajev, officially for personal reasons, resigned and was replaced by Foreign Minister Kasymzjomart Tokayev. The parliamentary elections, in which 47 of the 77 seats were up for grabs, also had major shortcomings, according to the OSCE. The opposition leader was again barred from running, which resulted in his party, the Republican People’s Party, boycotting the election. According to official data, the presidential support party won the Fatherland over just over 30%, while the Communist Party gained just under 18%. The three largest opposition parties demanded that the election result be annulled.

At the end of the year, Tokayev presented an economic reform program for growth, reduced inflation and reduced unemployment until 2002. As a result, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) approved a three-year loan of $ 400 million to Kazakhstan.

In November, armed Russian separatists were arrested in northern K. accused of wanting to carry out a coup and proclaiming an ethnic Russian state in Kazakhstan’s territory. Nearly one-third of K’s population is comprised of Russians, who have increasingly experienced jobs and study places for Kazakhs.

President Nazarbayev visited China in November, and both countries declared that they would coordinate their fight against ethnic separatism and religious fundamentalism. Tens of thousands of Muslim Uighurs, who want self-government in Xinjiang in northwestern China, exist as refugees in eastern Kazakhstan, where many of the minority’s ethnic relatives live.

Kazakhstan – Nur-Sultan


Nur-Sultan, to 1992 Tselinograd, 1992-98 Akmola, 1998–2019 Astana, capital of Kazakhstan; 1 million residents (2017).

Nur-Sultan is a railway hub and central city in one of the country’s leading agricultural districts.

Cereals and animal products are important raw materials in the food industry located at the site. Other production includes workshop and consumer goods.

After the decision that Nur-Sultan was to replace Alma-Ata as the capital of Kazakhstan, an extensive construction operation was started.

Founded in 1830 as a Russian fortification, Nur-Sultan became, under the name of Akmolinsk, a trading center on the road from Tashkent and Buchara to European Russia. During the 1950s, the Soviet cultivation of virgin lands in Kazakhstan was administered from here, which resulted in the city receiving the name Tselinograd in 1961 (of Russian tselina ‘unbroken land’, ‘new land’. In 1997 it became the capital of Nur-Sultan. to honor the outgoing President Nursultan Nazarbayev.

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