In 1999, the population of Mali was estimated to be around 11 million people, with a majority of the population being from the Bambara, Fula and Tuareg ethnic groups. The economy of Mali was largely based on its exports of agricultural products such as cotton and livestock, with a large percentage of its foreign exchange coming from remittances from citizens living abroad. Foreign relations at this time were largely positive, with strong ties to other countries in Africa and beyond. Politically, Mali had recently transitioned to a democratic system following decades of authoritarian rule. This resulted in a multi-party system where power was shared between different political parties and opposition candidates were allowed to contest in elections for the first time. This ushered in a period of greater freedom and openness in the country’s politics. See ethnicityology for Mali in the year of 2018.
Mali. Visit Countryaah official website to get information about the capital city of Mali. Fewer natural resources, water scarcity and unclear ownership of the land are believed to have been behind fighting between Arabs and the Kinta people in northeastern Mali in June and October. Dozens of people were reported to have been killed on both occasions. The conflict has been exacerbated by the fact that large quantities of weapons are still in operation after the civil war between Tuareggerilla and the army that ended in 1996.
- Also see Abbreviationfinder.org to see the acronym of MLI which stands for Mali and other definitions of this 3-letter abbreviation.
In August, the International Monetary Fund approved a three-year loan of around SEK half a billion to support the government’s economic reforms. About a dozen senior executives were dismissed at about the same time. the customs and tax authorities as part of the fight against corruption. Assessors saw the dismissals as an attempt by the government to qualify Mali for the World Bank’s debt amortization program.
Former dictator Moussa Traoré and his wife and brother-in-law were sentenced in January to death for embezzlement. All of the later death sentences were transformed into lifetime penalties by President Alpha Oumar Konaré. It was the second time Konaré saved his representative’s life. Traoré was sentenced to death in 1997 for the shooting deaths of protesters in 1991. That punishment was also converted to life.
In the early years of the new century, Mali did not seem to have resolved the problems and contradictions that characterized it for over a decade. Political fragmentation and fluidity in alliances between parties continued to make the stability of governments precarious. The democratization process itself, initiated in 1991 by General AT Touré, with a military coup followed, however, the following year by multi-party elections, presented strong elements of ambiguity. The activism of civil society, with the multiplication of newspapers, independent radios, associations and popular schools, was in fact matched by a low participation of citizens in the institutions of democracy, and in particular in the exercise of voting.30 % of those eligible, excluding the first round of the 2002 presidential elections and the administrative elections of May 2004, when it stood at around 40 %. Relations between the numerous communities were also critical, always poised between confrontation and dialogue. If the most serious situation, that of the Tuareg, had been resolved with the 1996 agreements, conflicts and tensions continued to explode sporadically over the control of water resources and pastures.
The second term of the President of the Republic AO Konaré (elected in 1992 and again in 1997) was characterized by the persistence of strong elements of political instability and social crisis, culminating in a general strike in the summer of 1999, which involved the public sector and the private one, ultimately leading to the resignation of the prime minister and subsequent and repeated reshuffles in the government structure. In April-May 2002 presidential elections were held, which saw the participation of 24candidates, to testify once again to the political fragmentation of the country, and Touré’s return to the political scene. Presenting himself as an independent candidate, Touré, who had received the support of a large front of parties, defeated his opponent S. Cissé in the second round, supported by Alliance pour la démocratie au Mali (ADEMA), the traditionally majority party in the country. The legislative elections of July 2002 registered the success of Espoir 2002, a grouping of numerous national and local parties, which won 66 seats out of 147. ADEMA, together with the related forces, obtained 51 seats, while Convergence pour l’ternance e le changement , the coalition that explicitly referred to Touré, had only 10 seats (which became 19 thanks to the adhesion of independent deputies). In the same month, after the pardon granted by President Konaré at the end of his mandate, the long judicial affair of the former dictator Mali Traoré ended with the release from prison, which began in 1993 with a death sentence for murder, then commuted. in life imprisonment in December 1997, to which was added a new death sentence in January 1999 for economic crimes, also commuted to life imprisonment in September of the same year.
The wide popularity of the new president and the formation of a government of national unity (Oct 2002) were however not enough to solve the country’s problems. The political situation remained unstable, while ethnic clashes and a new general strike (Oct 2003) confirmed a social reality marked by strong tensions. The uncertain trend of the economy contributed to this, which suffered from the fall in cotton prices and the fall in gold production starting from 2002, and was negatively affected by the crisis in the nearby Ivory Coast., which caused the repatriation of Malian emigrants and the closure of the ports used by Mali for his trade. In foreign policy, Mali continued on the one hand to play a mediating role in regional conflicts, strengthening the position adopted in the 1990s, on the other hand, in addition to the consolidated relations with France, it expanded those with the United States, which they considered the Islamic Mali an important country in their strategy to fight terrorism.
Bamako, the capital of Mali; 1. 8 million residents (2010). Bamako, located in the southwestern part of the country, on the Niger River, is Mali’s largest city. It is primarily an administrative center, but also an important trading center with a river port. The industry is mainly focused on the processing of food and other agricultural products. The city has an international airport and rail connection to Dakar in Senegal.
Bamako was founded in 1650, occupied by the French in 1880 and became the capital of the French Sudan colony in 1908.