Mozambique 1999

Mozambique’s population in 1999 was estimated at 19 million people, with a growth rate of 2.7%. The economy of Mozambique was dependent on its agricultural sector, which accounted for around 35% of the country’s GDP. This was supplemented by the mining industry and tourism. Foreign relations in 1999 were largely positive with the country enjoying strong ties with many African nations and the wider international community. Politically, Mozambique had been a multi-party state since 1994 when it formally adopted a democratic system. The ruling party at this time was FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique) which had been in power since independence in 1975. In 1999, Joaquim Chissano was president and had been since 1986. See ethnicityology for Mozambique in the year of 2018.

Yearbook 1999

Mozambique 1999

Mozambique. In the summer, the International Monetary Fund, the IMF, and the World Bank found that Mozambique had met the criteria for obtaining foreign loans of $ 3.7 million. In recent years, extensive economic reforms have been implemented, which has led to an increase in foreign investment and led to economic growth of over ten percent a year.

Visit Countryaah official website to get information about the capital city of Mozambique. Presidential and general elections were held in early December when FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Mozambique) received 68%. This meant that FRELIMO got 133 seats in parliament, an increase of four seats. The opposition party, RENAMO (Resistencia Nacional Mozambicana), in coalition with eleven small parties, received 39% of the vote, which corresponded to 117 seats in parliament. President Joaquim Alberto Chissano was re-elected with just over 52% of the vote, while his RENAMO rival, Afonso Marcela Masacho Dlakama, had to settle for 48%.

  • Also see to see the acronym of MOZ which stands for Mozambique and other definitions of this 3-letter abbreviation.

Map of Mozambique Maputo in English

After the Election Commission had published the results at the end of December after a several-week long and controversial vote count, RENAMO accused FRELIMO of electoral fraud and announced its intention to take the case before the Supreme Court. The turnout was close to 70%, and the elections were overseen by some seventy international observers with former US President Jimmy Carter in the lead.


About fifteen years after the end of the long and bloody civil war (1977-1992), Mozambique appeared as a country characterized by sustained economic growth and in which, despite persistent difficulties in bringing divergences and contrasts back into shared rules, a real democratic dialectic was being consolidated. The early years of 21° sec. in fact, they had seen economic reconstruction continue and improve a large part of development indicators, from the increase in the rate of schooling and vaccinations, to the decrease in maternal and infant mortality and the percentage of the population below the poverty line. Driving GDP growth were large projects supported by European and South African funding, the export of products from the agri-food industry, tourism, the restoration of transport routes and ports, as well as the cancellation of debt by many countries and international organizations. Growth had also consolidated despite three consecutive years of flooding which, starting in 2000, had devastated part of the country causing deaths, damaging agriculture and forcing thousands of people to leave their homes. The political situation presented profiles of greater uncertainty: despite the substantial strengthening of institutions, the democratic dialectic suffered from the monopoly of FRELIMO ( Frente de Libertação de Moçambique ) and of RENAMO ( Resistência Nacional Moçambicana ), which seemed to close all space to other political forces. The confrontation between the two parties appeared harsh and conflicting: RENAMO, in particular, had contested the results of the presidential and legislative elections of 1999, judged correct by international observers. Threatening to boycott Parliament and manifesting secessionist intentions, RENAMO had long hindered reforms, including administrative reforms aimed at wider decentralization which, given the strong regionalization of the vote (FRELIMO in the North and South, RENAMO in the Center), would stay in favor. On the other hand, the FRELIMO, in power since independence, had been involved in episodes of corruption and its leaders were lapped by suspicion in the murder (2000) of the independent journalist C. Cardoso.

The municipal elections of November 2003 saw the victory, unexpectedly in size, of FRELIMO, which won the majority in 29 municipalities and 28 mayors against the 4 obtained by RENAMO. The latter, weakened by a split with the exit from the party of J. Domingos and the birth of a new formation, but also by reviving the worn out scheme of an announced boycott followed by participation in the vote, also lost consensus in its areas of traditional settlement. In these consultations there was also a participation in the vote of 24.2 %, which marked a clear reversal of the trend compared to the past: the 1994 elections, the first after the end of the civil war, had in fact seen a turnout of almost 90 %, which decreased in subsequent elections, but always stood close to 70 %.

A constitutional reform was approved in November 2004, after a long and arduous five-year negotiation that involved the ruling party and the opposition party, but also many groups representing civil society. The new text limited presidential terms to two and provided for elective assemblies for the country’s eleven provinces. In December of the same year the presidential elections took place which, in compliance with the new constitutional provision, did not see J. Chissano re-nominated. President for eighteen years, protagonist of the liberation struggle, head of the transitional government from September 1974 to the day after the proclamation of independence (June 25, 1975), succeeded in 1986 to S. Machel, first president of Mozambique, who died in a plane crash.

AE Guebuza, candidate of FRELIMO, with 63.74 % of the votes obtained the presidency of the Republic, defeating A. Dhlakama, candidate of RENAMO. The simultaneous legislative consultations once again awarded the victory to FRELIMO, which won 160 seats out of 250. The remaining 90 (he had 117) went to RENAMO-UE, (RENAMO with the coalition of parties called União Eleitoral ). The elections, in addition to reaffirming the political monopoly of the two major parties, also confirmed the disaffection from voting, registering a turnout of 36.4 %. In February 2005After the inauguration of the new president, a government was formed led by L. Diogo, former finance minister. In foreign policy, Mozambique, who maintained excellent relations with the European Union and in particular with Italy, had been gaining an important role as mediator in the numerous African conflicts.


Maputo, until 1976 Lourenço Marques, capital of Mozambique; 1. 1 million residents (2017). Maputo, located on the Indian Ocean, was, before independence in 1975, a popular seaside resort for white South Africans and Rhodesians. The port is one of East Africa’s most important, and within the industry are breweries, shipyards and the cement, textile, furniture and ceramics industries. Maputo has a university (founded in 1962).

The city was founded in 1545 and gained city rights in 1887. It was the administrative center of the colony, called Lourenço Marques, and became the capital after independence in 1975 with the name Maputo.

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