Haiti Learning

Haiti is located on the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean Sea. It occupies the western third of the island, sharing the island with the Dominican Republic to the east. Its geographical coordinates are approximately 18.9712° N latitude and 72.2852° W longitude.



Haiti has a tropical climate with distinct wet and dry seasons. The wet season typically lasts from April to November, with hurricanes and tropical storms occurring between June and November.


Haiti is home to a variety of fauna, including birds such as the Hispaniolan trogon and the Hispaniolan parakeet, as well as reptiles like the rhinoceros iguana and the American crocodile.

Longest Rivers:

The longest river in Haiti is the Artibonite River, which flows for approximately 320 kilometers (200 miles) through the central part of the country.

Highest Mountains:

The highest peak in Haiti is Pic la Selle, standing at an elevation of 2,680 meters (8,793 feet) above sea level. It is part of the Massif de la Selle mountain range in the southern region of the country.



The island of Hispaniola was inhabited by indigenous Taíno people before the arrival of European explorers. These indigenous peoples had a rich culture and practiced agriculture, fishing, and hunting.

Colonial Era:

Christopher Columbus arrived on the island in 1492 and claimed it for Spain. The Spanish established the first European settlement, La Navidad, but it was later destroyed. In the 17th century, France gained control of the western part of the island and named it Saint-Domingue.

Modern Age:

Haiti became the first independent nation in Latin America and the Caribbean, and the only nation in the world, established as a result of a successful slave revolt. It gained independence from France in 1804, led by revolutionary leaders including Toussaint Louverture and Jean-Jacques Dessalines. However, political instability, poverty, and natural disasters have plagued the country in modern times.


Haiti has a population of approximately 11 million people, making it the most populous country in the Caribbean. The population is predominantly of African descent, with a small minority of mixed-race, Caucasian, and indigenous peoples. The official languages are Haitian Creole and French, with the majority of the population practicing Roman Catholicism.

Administrative Divisions

Haiti is divided into ten administrative departments, each headed by a departmental council. These departments are further subdivided into arrondissements, communes, and communal sections. The administrative divisions of Haiti, along with their respective populations, are as follows:

  1. Artibonite – Population: 2.1 million
  2. Centre – Population: 700,000
  3. Grande-Anse – Population: 500,000
  4. Nippes – Population: 350,000
  5. Nord – Population: 1.1 million
  6. Nord-Est – Population: 400,000
  7. Nord-Ouest – Population: 800,000
  8. Ouest (West) – Population: 4.5 million
  9. Sud (South) – Population: 800,000
  10. Sud-Est (Southeast) – Population: 700,000

10 Largest Cities by Population

The largest cities in Haiti by population include:

  1. Port-au-Prince – Population: 2.6 million
  2. Carrefour – Population: 500,000
  3. Delmas – Population: 400,000
  4. Pétion-Ville – Population: 300,000
  5. Port-de-Paix – Population: 250,000
  6. Jacmel – Population: 250,000
  7. Cap-Haïtien – Population: 200,000
  8. Les Cayes – Population: 200,000
  9. Gonaïves – Population: 200,000
  10. Saint-Marc – Population: 200,000

Education Systems


Education in Haiti is provided by public, private, and parochial schools. While education is theoretically free and compulsory for children between the ages of 6 and 12, access to quality education remains a challenge for many due to poverty and infrastructure issues.

Top Universities:

The State University of Haiti, located in Port-au-Prince, is the country’s primary institution of higher education. Other notable universities include Quisqueya University and the École Supérieure d’Infotronique d’Haïti.



Haiti has several airports, with Toussaint Louverture International Airport in Port-au-Prince being the main international gateway. Other airports include Cap-Haïtien International Airport, Jérémie Airport, and Les Cayes Airport.


Haiti does not have a railway system.


The road network in Haiti is limited but includes several major highways. The National Highway 1, known as Route Nationale 1, is the main highway connecting Port-au-Prince to Cap-Haïtien in the north.


The Port of Port-au-Prince is the largest and busiest seaport in Haiti, handling the majority of the country’s maritime trade. Other important ports include the Port of Cap-Haïtien and the Port of Gonaïves.

Country Facts

  • Population: Approximately 11 million
  • Capital: Port-au-Prince
  • Official Languages: Haitian Creole, French
  • Religion: Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Voodoo
  • Ethnic Groups: African descent, mixed-race, Caucasian, indigenous
  • Currency: Haitian Gourde (HTG)
  • ISO Country Code: HT
  • International Calling Code: +509
  • Top-Level Domain: .ht